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HD 189733b
HD 189733b

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Played by

Chris Pintado

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First Appearance

More Gas Giants

HD 189733 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 63 light-years away from the Solar System in the constellation of Vulpecula, the Fox. The planet was discovered orbiting the star HD 189733 A on October 5, 2005, when astronomers in France observed the planet transiting across the face of the star.[1] With a mass 13% higher than that of Jupiter, HD 189733 b orbits its host star once every 2.2 days at an orbital speed of Template:Convert, making it a hot Jupiter with poor prospects for life as we know it. Being the closest transiting hot Jupiter to Earth, HD 189733 b is a subject for extensive atmospheric examination. HD 189733 b was the first extrasolar planet for which a thermal map was constructed,[2] to be detected through polarimetry, to have its overall colour determined (deep blue),[2][3] to have a transit detected in x-ray spectrum and to have carbon dioxide detected in its atmosphere.

In July, 2014, NASA announced finding very dry atmospheres on three exoplanets (HD 189733b, HD 209458b, WASP-12b) orbiting Sun-like stars.[4]

Detection and discovery Edit

Transit and Doppler spectroscopy Edit

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On October 6, 2005, a team of astronomers announced the discovery of transiting planet HD 189733 b. The planet was then detected using Doppler spectroscopy. Real-time radial velocity measurements detected the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect caused by the planet passing in front of its star before photometric measurements confirmed that the planet was transiting. In 2006, a team led by Drake Deming announced a detection of strong infrared thermal emission from the transiting extrasolar planet HD 189733 b, by measuring the flux decrement (decrease of total light) during its prominent secondary eclipse (when the planet passes behind the star).

The mass of the planet is estimated to be 13% larger than Jupiter's, with the planet completing an orbit around its host star every 2.2 days and an orbital speed of 152.5 km/s.

Infrared spectrum Edit

On February 21, 2007, NASA released news that the Spitzer Space Telescope had measured detailed spectra from both HD 189733 b and HD 209458 b.[5] The release came simultaneously with the public release of a new issue of Nature containing the first publication on the spectroscopic observation of the other exoplanet, HD 209458 b. A paper was submitted and published by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The spectroscopic observations of HD 189733 b were led by Carl Grillmair of NASA's Spitzer Science Center.

Visible colour Edit

In 2008, a team of astrophysicists managed to detect and monitor the planet's visible light using polarimetry, the first such success.[6] This result was further improved by the same team in 2011.[2] They found that the planet albedo is significantly larger in blue light than in the red, most probably due to Rayleigh scattering and molecular absorption in the red.[2] The blue colour of the planet was subsequently confirmed in 2013,[7] making HD 189733 the first planet to have its overall colour determined by two different techniques.

The blueness of the planet may be the result of Rayleigh scattering. In mid January 2008, spectral observation during the planet's transit using that model found that if molecular hydrogen exists, it would have an atmospheric pressure of 410 ± 30 mbar of 0.1564 solar radii. The Mie approximation model also found that there is a possible condensate in its atmosphere, magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) with a particle size of approximately 10−2 to 10−1 μm. Using both models, the planet's temperature would be between 1340 to 1540 K.[8] The Rayleigh effect is confirmed in other models,[9] and by the apparent lack of a cooler, shaded stratosphere below its outer atmosphere.

X-ray spectrum Edit

In July 2013, NASA reported the first observations of planet transit studied in X-ray spectrum. It was found that the planet's atmosphere blocks three times more x-rays than visible light.[10]

Evaporation Edit

File:Hubble, Swift Detect First-ever Changes in an Exoplanet Atmosphere.ogv

In March 2010, transit observations using HI Lyman-alpha found that this planet is evaporating at a rate of 1-100 gigagrams per second. This indication was found by detecting the extended exosphere of atomic hydrogen. HD 189733 b is the second planet after HD 209458 b for which atmospheric evaporation has been detected.[11]

Physical characteristics Edit

File:Artist’s impression of the deep blue planet HD 189733b.jpg

This planet exhibits one of the largest photometric transit depth (amount of the parent star's light blocked) of extrasolar planets so far observed, approximately 3%. The apparent longitude of ascending node of its orbit is 16 degrees +/- 8 away from north-south in our sky. It and HD 209458 b were the first two planets to be directly spectroscopically observed.[5] The parent stars of these two planets are the brightest transiting-planet host stars, so these planets will continue to receive the most attention by astronomers. Like most hot Jupiters, this planet is thought to be tidally locked to its parent star, meaning it has a permanent day and night.

The planet is not oblate, and has neither satellites with greater than 0.8 the radius of Earth nor a ring system like that of Saturn.[12]

The atmosphere was at first predicted "pL class", lacking a temperature-inversion stratosphere; like L dwarfs which lack titanium and vanadium oxides.[13] Follow-up measurements, tested against a stratospheric model, yielded inconclusive results.[14] Atmospheric condensates form a haze 1000 km above the surface as viewed in the infrared. A sunset viewed from that surface would be red.[15] Sodium and potassium signals were predicted by Tinetti 2007. First obscured by the haze of condensates, sodium was eventually observed at three times the concentration of HD 209458 b's sodium layer.[16] HD 189733 is also the first extrasolar planet confirmed to have carbon dioxide in its atmosphere.[17]

Map of the planet Edit

In 2007, the Spitzer space telescope was used to map the planet's temperature emissions. The planet+star system was observed for 33 consecutive hours, starting when only the night side of the planet was in view. Over the course of one-half of the planet's orbit, more and more of the day side came into view. A temperature range of 973 ± 33 K to 1,212 ± 11 K was discovered, indicating that the absorbed energy from the parent star is distributed fairly evenly through the planet's atmosphere. Interestingly, the region of peak temperature was offset 30 degrees east of the substellar point, as predicted by theoretical models of hot Jupiters taking into account a parameterized day to night redistribution mechanism.[18]

File:HD 189733b's atmosphere.jpg

Scientists at the University of Warwick determined that it has winds of up to Template:Convert blowing from the day side to the night side.[19] NASA released a brightness map of the surface temperature of HD 189733 b; it is the first map ever published of an extra-solar planet.[20]

Water vapor, oxygen and organic compounds Edit

On July 11, 2007, a team led by Giovanna Tinetti published the results of their observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope concluding there is solid evidence for significant amounts of water vapor in the planet's atmosphere.[21] Follow-up observations made using the Hubble Space Telescope confirm the presence of water vapor, neutral oxygen and also the organic compound methane.[9][22][23] Later, Very Large Telescope observations also detected the presence of carbon monoxide on the day side of the planet.[24] It is currently unknown how the methane originated as the planet's high Template:Nowrap temperature should cause the water and methane to react, replacing the atmosphere with carbon monoxide.[22][25]

Evolution Edit

While transiting the system also clearly exhibits the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, the shifting in photospheric spectral lines caused by the planet occulting a part of the rotating stellar surface. Due to its high mass and close orbit the parent star has a very large semi-amplitude (K), the "wobble" in the star's radial velocity, of 205 m/s.[26]

The Rossiter–McLaughlin effect allows the measurement of the angle between the planet's orbital plane and the equatorial plane of the star. These are well aligned.[27] By analogy with HD 149026 b, the formation of the planet was peaceful and probably involved interactions with the protoplanetary disc. A much larger angle would have suggested a violent interplay with other protoplanets.

Basis Edit

HD 189733b is based on the Jovian planets of The Milky Way 0-6-0s. His basis is one of WASP-79b's minus the color red and the great storm.

Livery Edit

Like in the Discovery Space series, HD 189733b is colored blue, turquiose and white.

See also Edit

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References Edit

External links Edit

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Template:Sky Template:Nearest star systemses:HD 189733#HD 189733b

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